Glossary of Terms
Thanks to Keith Brewster for part of this list taken from the yahoo surface hippy home page.
Movement of an extremity away from the body.
A pus-filled area that affects skin or organs.
he receptacle for the head of the femur; formed by the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Movement of an extremity toward the body.
Muscles that produce body movement in the same direction.
Biologic tissue from a cadaver that is used to surgically replace damaged tissue
A violent hypersensitivity reaction, resulting in shock.
Anterior compartment syndrome
Increased soft-tissue pressure in the anterior compartment of the lower leg, resulting in pain, decreased sensation, and muscle paralysis
Surface at the front of the body, facing the examiner. With hip resurfacing there are two different types of anterior approace, anterolateral which has the incision on the side of thehip but the surgeon dislocates the hip from the front and cuts through the gluteus muscles and the Direct anterior approach where the incision is through the front of the hip and spares most muscles
Anteroposterior (AP) view
Anterior-posterior view in which the x-ray tube is in front and the film cassette is in back. The x-ray beam passes from front to back.
Articular Surface Replacement, brand name of DePuy’s metal-on-metal hip resurfacing device.
A condition in which cells die as a result of inadequate blood supply; see also osteonecrosis
Birmingham Hip Resurfacing
One of five types of microorganisms that commonly causes disease, characterized by absence of a nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. Bacteria are classified according to their shape and are designated as gram positive or gram negative.
Classification of antibiotic in which bacteria are destroyed.
Classification of antibiotic in which bacteria are not killed, but are prevented from reproducing.
Both sides, bilateral hip surgery means both the left and right side are done,sometimes simultaneously.
The study of external and internal forces applied to the body and their relationship to stability and motion.
A process that couples bone resorption by osteoclasts with deposition of osteoblasts (new bone cells)
A study used to identify lesions in bone such as fracture, infections, or tumor. A radioisotope is injected into a vein and allowed to circulate through the body. The distribution of radioactivity in the skeleton is measured by a special camera that can detect the emission of gamma rays. Lesions in bone with increased metabolic activity (eg, fracture, tumor, or infection) will show increased uptake of the radioisotope and appear as a dark area in the bone. Also called bone scintigraphy
A sac formed by two layers of synovial tissue that is located where there is friction between tendon and bone or skin and bone
Inflammation of a bursa
Ceramic on Ceramic articulation
Conserve Plus hip resurfacing device by Wright Medical
A hole that develops in bone due to synovial fluid pressure when cartilage is lacking; a solitary fluid-filled cyst (cavity) in a bone
FDA classification that allows a specific surgeon to implant a device in patients on a limited basis.
Small, thin-walled blood vessels that have close contact with individual cells of the body.
A collagenous structure that surrounds a joint like a sleeve. The capsule allows motion of joints and protects the articular cartilage. The capsule, along with ligaments, tendons, and bony structure, provides stability of the joint
A cellular tissue that, in the adult, is specific to joints, but in children forms a template for bone formation and growth. Hyaline cartilage is a low-friction cellular tissue that coats joint surfaces. Fibrocartilage is tough with high collagen content, such as found in the meniscus of the knee, or the anulus fibrosus portion of the intervertebral disk
A fracture that does not disrupt the integrity of the surrounding skin
A procedure to restore normal alignment of a fractured bone or dislocated joint in which the fractured bones are simply manipulated and no incision is needed
A fracture with more than two fragments
Any fracture in which the overlying skin has been penetrated
Computed tomography (CT, CAT scan)
A radiographic modality that allows cross-sectional imaging from a series of x-ray beams. The x-ray tube is rotated 360° around the patient, and the computer converts these images into a two-dimensional axial image. CT is capable of imaging bone in three planes: coronal, sagittal, and oblique. This modality is particularly useful in evaluating fractures and bone tumors
the diameter of the spinal canal.
Tissue that connects and supports the structures of the body
Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme; an enzyme that is thought to be present in the body only when induced in response to injury and is responsible for the formation of prostaglandins that mediate pain and inflammation
A deformity of the hip in which the ball of the hip joint is enlarged. May be secondary to Legg-Perthes disease or arthritis.
A valgus or abduction deformity of the hip. The neck/shaft angle in increased.
A hole that develops in bone due to synovial fluid pressure when cartilage is lacking; a solitary fluid-filled cyst (cavity) in a bone
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT)
Venous clot formation caused by immobilization, hypercoagulation, obstructed venous flow, or endothelial injury, among others
The amount of lengthening or shortening in a structure divided by the structure's original length.
Degenerative joint disease (DJD)
Deterioration of the articular cartilage that lines a joint, which results in narrowing of the joint space and pain; osteoarthritis
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Muscle pain or discomfort that follows unaccustomed vigorous exercise and persists for several days despite the cessation of activity.
A delay in normal fracture healing; not necessarily a pathologic process
Separation of the distal tibia and fibula.
Complete disruption in the normal relationship of two bones forming a joint (ie, no contact of the articular surfaces). The direction of the dislocation is described by the position of the distal bone (eg, with an anterior dislocation of the shoulder, the humerus is displaced anterior to the scapula).
A fracture that produces deformity of the limb
Location in an extremity nearer the free end; location on the trunk farther from the midline or from the point of reference
Toward the posterior surface of the body
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA)
A diagnostic imaging technology that uses two different x-ray voltages to assess bone density
The use of muscle strength and muscle coordination during performance of activities; used in rehabilitation.
The magnitude of isotonic or isokinetic contraction
A broad term that describes a condition affecting growth or development in which the primary defect is intrinsic to bone or cartilage
A condition resulting from defective or faulty nutrition, broadly construed to include nourishment of tissue by all essential substances, including those normally manufactured by the body itself
The presence of fluid within a joint
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS)
Treatment in which the biphasic current delivers stimulation to muscles in a variety of ways, including pulse, surged, or tetanizing contractions
Enchondral bone healing
Process in which capillaries grow among mesenchymal cells, forming a fibrovascular tissue known as callus that bridges the gap between bone ends
The process of long bone formation where the cartilage model is replaced by bone.
The formation of bone within a cartilage model
A blood clot located outside the dura mater.
A part of a long bone developed from a center of ossification distinct from that of the shaft and separated at first from the latter by a layer of cartilage; the rounded end of a long bone at the joint.
A glistening, synovial-like membrane that envelops the tendon surface.
A spur or bony overgrowth.
Movement of an extremity posterior to or behind the body.
A muscle, the contraction of which causes movement at a joint with the consequence that the limb or body assumes a more straight line, or so that the distance between the parts proximal and distal to the joint is increased or extended; the antagonist of a flexor
Complex interaction of muscles, ligaments, and tendons that stabilizes the patellofemoral joint and acts to extend the knee
Stabilization of a fracture or unstable joint by inserting pins into bone proximal and distal to the injury that are then attached to an external frame.
Lateral rotation of an extremity relative to the body.
Femoral Acetabular Impingement
Sheet or band of tough fibrous connective tissue; lies deep under the skin and forms an outer layer for the muscles
Bundles of fibers within muscle fibers.
Microfracture that occurs when the bone is subjected to frequent, repeated stresses, such as in running or marching long distances, and the rate of bone breakdown exceeds the rate of bone repair.
Food & Drug Administration (U.S. Regulatory commission)
Two surfaces at the distal end of the femur that articulate with the superior surfaces of the tibia
Proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum
The bone connecting the head and the shaft of the femur; fractures frequently occur in this area
Femoral nerve palsy
Pain and weakness in the femoral nerve distribution as the result of a stretch or trauma to the nerve.
A mesh of collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, interspersed with fibrochondrocytes.
Cells that are able to synthesize fibrous extracellular proteins and have the rounded appearance of chondrocytes
The capacity of a muscle to lengthen or stretch
Movement of an extremity anterior to or in front of the body.
A muscle the action of which is to flex or bend a joint
A special type of radiograph that shows continuous motion of the structure, such as wrist motion
A disruption in the integrity of a bone
A fracture of bone associated with a dislocation of its adjacent joint.
The realignment of fracture fragments to restore normal anatomy of the bone
The joining of two bones into a single unit, thereby obliterating motion between the two. May be congenital, traumatic, or surgical.
A fundamental component in the synthesis of both hyaluronic acid and chondroitin that is thought to promote cartilage repair and synthesis; the oral form is taken as a dietary supplement to treat arthritis
Broad, flat process at the upper end of the lateral surface of the femur to which several muscles are attached
Deformity at the first metatarsophalangeal joint where the proximal phalanx deviates laterally; also known as a bunion.
Three muscles in the posterior region of the buttock and thigh that provide an extension force at the hip and a flexion force at the knee.
The upper or proximal portion of a structure; the head of a bone is the rounded end that allows joint rotation
A collection of blood within a joint.
A collection of blood resulting from injury
Literally Greek for half, Hemi Hip Resurfacing is just a resurfacing of the femur, with no acetabluar component
The formation of bone in any nonosseous tissue; often occurs following trauma
Nickname for someone that has some form of a hip implant
Health Maintenance Organization, a “managed care” health insurance system in the U.S. where referrals are screened by a PCP, and specialists are limitied to those in the HMO network of providers
The mineral component of bone matrix that is deposited into the organic framework to make the bone hard and strong.
An increase in normal motion.
The amount of relaxation, or variation in the load-deformation relationship, that takes place within a single cycle of loading and unloading in soft tissue.
Ice, compression, elevation, and splinting
Investigational Device Exemption, FDA classification that allows the implanting of a device during a clinical trial
Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome
An overuse injury where repetitive flexion and extension causes inflammation of the iliotibial band when it rubs over the lateral femoral condyle.
Shoulder pain caused by tendinosis of the rotator cuff tendon or irritation of the subacromial bursa. See also Rotator cuff impingement, external, and Rotator cuff impingement, internal
A localized tissue response initiated by the injury or destruction of vascularized tissues. Inflammation Heat, redness, swelling, and pain that accompany musculoskeletal injuries; occurs when tissue is crushed, stretched, or torn
Looseness, unsteadiness, or an inability to withstand normal physiologic loading without mechanical deformation.
Surgical insertion of a device that stops motion across a fracture or joint to encourage bony healing or fusion
Medial rotation of an extremity relative to the body.
Bone formation characterized by the aggregation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, which differentiate into osteoblasts
The junction between the ends of two adjacent bones.
A thin, but strong structure in the elbow that plays a role in ligamentous restraint.
Skilled, passive movement of a joint (or spinal segment) either within or beyond its active range of motion; also known as joint mobilization.
Passive movement techniques used to treat joint dysfunctions such as stiffness, reversible joint hypomobility, and pain.
Capsular laxity that allows movement at the joint that may be demonstrated passively, but cannot be actively performed by the patient; used in joint mobilization.
Stress fracture of the proximal shaft of the fifth metatarsal; a fracture that frequently heals with difficulty
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
A chronic inflammatory disease in children that is characterized by pain, swelling, and tenderness in one or more joints and may result in impaired growth and development
Joint Replacement Institute in Los Angeles
Lying away from the midline
Lateral articular surface
A bony process on each end of the clavicle.
Forms the lateral border of the upper surface of a joint
A view that passes from side to side at 90° to an AP or PA view
The irrigation or thorough washing of an infected joint with high-volume saline solution
LBHR or LTHR
Left Birmingham Hip Resurfacing device or Left Total Hip Replacement
Osteonecrosis of the proximal femoral epiphysis that most commonly affects boys aged 3 to 8 years.
A collagenous tissue that connects two bones to stabilize a joint
Surgical removal of a tumor without amputation of the affected extremity
of the tarsometatarsal joint
Any force or combination of forces applied to the outside of a structure.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
An imaging modality that depends on the movement of protons in water molecules. When subjected to a magnetic field, protons that are normally randomly aligned become aligned. Radiowaves directed at the tissue to be studied are used to change the alignment of these photons. When the radiowaves are turned off, the protons emit a signal that is detected and processed by a computer into an image. In the musculoskeletal system, MRI is useful in diagnosing soft-tissue injuries, tumors, stress fracture, and infection.
Lying toward the midline
Medial articular surface
A bony process on each end of the clavicle.
Medial collateral ligament injuries
An acute knee injury that is the result of a blow to the lateral side of the knee when the foot is planted; commonly seen in football players and snow skiers.
Forms the medial border of the upper surface of a joint
Imaginary straight vertical line drawn from midforehead through the nose and the umbilicus to the floor
MoM or M/M
Metal on Metal articulation
Metal to polyethylene articulation
Bone with which the head of the talus articulates on the medial side of the foot; also a bone in the wrist that articulates with the trapezium, trapezoid, and other carpal bones
Pain along the course of a nerve
A temporary loss of neural function
Inflammation or irritation of a nerve
A tumor composed of nerve cells
The chronic, progressive destruction of a joint that is caused by the loss of sensation from an underlying neurologic dysfunction; also known as Charcot arthropathy
National Health System in England
Fracture in which there is no deformity of the limb
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
A broad group of chemically heterogeneous drugs that share important clinical and tissue effects: all have some analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Includes aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, and others.
An open surgical procedure in which normal or near-normal relationships are restored to a fractured bone or dislocated joint
Death or resorption of bone cells causing softening of bone
A deterioration of the weightbearing surface; distinguished by destruction of the hyaline cartilage and narrowing at the joint space.
Cells that form new bone.
The cells of established bone
Dissolution of bone, particularly as resulting from excessive resorption
Infection of bone, either bacterial or mycotic
The death of bone, often as a result of obstruction of its blood supply
Bone fragility as the result of a low-calcium diet.
A painful inflammation of the periosteum or lining of bone.
Overgrowth of bone, common in osteoarthritis and spinal stenosis
Deterioration of bone tissue resulting in an increased risk of fracture as the result of a low-calcium diet.
The process of bony union, as in fracture healing. It is a biologic welding process that is sometimes facilitated with grafts of bone from the iliac crest and insertion of fixation devices
Literally, cutting a bone. Used to describe surgical procedures in which bone is cut and realigned
A sensory and emotional reaction precipitated by actual or anticipated injury; results from damage to tissue or nerves and is made worse by pressure or inflammation.
Polyethylene an alternative bearing surface for some Total Hip Replacement implants
A bony ring, consisting of the sacrum, coccyx, and innominate bones, that connects the trunk to the lower extremities, supports the abdominal contents, and allows passage of the excretory canals
Portable transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) unit
A portable therapeutic modality that uses electrical stimulation to attempt to modulate pain, strengthen muscles, and enhance soft-tissue healing
A form of secondary osteoarthritis caused by a loss of joint congruence and normal joint biomechanics
A sense or perception, usually at a subconscious level, of the movements and position of the body and especially its limbs, independent of vision; this sense is gained primarily from input from sensory nerve terminals in muscles and tendons (muscle spindles) and the fibrous capsule of joints combined with input from the vestibular apparatus
describing structures that are closer to the trunk
A false joint produced when a fracture or arthrodesis fails to heal
Lines of radiolucency that represent stress fractures with unmineralized osteoid
Range of motion (ROM)
The amount of movement available at a joint
Pain that is perceived in a different location from the location of pathology.
Fairly fixed pattern of response or behavior similar for any given stimulus; does not involve a conscious action
The production of tissue that is structurally and functionally identical to tissue damaged by injury.
Restoration, following disease, illness, or injury, of the ability to function in a normal or near-normal manner
The replacement of damaged or lost cells and matrix with new cells and matrix that are not necessarily identical in structure and function to normal tissue.
A procedure in which the surfaces of diseased bone are excised, allowing fibrocartilage to grow in its place
Process of elimination of dead or unused bone cells
Surfacehippy, once applied in a derogatory sense to those who were strong advocated on Totally Hip, now taken as a badge of honor.
A procedure to provide an additional blood supply to fractured bone
A chronic inflammatory disease that is probably triggered by an antigen-mediated inflammatory reaction against the synovium in the joint
A method of treatment of acute injury that is used to counteract the body's initial response to injury; RICE is an acronym for rest, ice, compression, and elevation
RBHR or RTHR
Right Birmingham Hip Resurfacing or Right Total Hip Replacement
Secondary bone healing
The repair process that is characterized by the formation of fracture callus, which then remodels to form new bone
Osteoarthritis resulting from known precipitants such as bone ischemia, trauma, and neuropathy
Osteoporosis characterized by conditions in which bone is lost because of the presence of another disease, such as hormonal imbalances, malignancies, or gastrointestinal disorders, or because of corticosteroid use
Infection of a joint, either bacterial or mycotic
An overuse syndrome that results from cyclical loading at the posterior tibial and soleus muscle attachments onto the tibia; also known as posterior tibial stress syndrome.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
A unique fracture of the femoral epiphysis that fractures through the epiphysis and shifts; commonly occurs in adolescents.
Cells with the unlimited ability of self-renewal and regeneration; serve to regenerate tissue
Unnatural distribution of body weight to femur reduces stress to parts of femur, such shielding can lead to bone loss and possibly implant loosening
An overuse injury in which the body cannot repair microscopic damage to the bone as quickly as it is induced, leading to painful, weakened bone
Person with a hip resurfacing implant (e.g. BHR, C+, Biomet, ASR, Corin) online support group where surfacehippies share their experiences.
Evidence of change in body functions apparent to the patient and expressed to the examiner on questioning
A fluid that has a very low coefficient of friction and provides lubrication and nutrients for joint chondrocytes.; the straw-colored fluid in the joint that is formed by filtration of capillary plasma
A joint formed by the articulation of two bones, the ends of which are lined with hyaline cartilage and is surrounded by a capsule which is lined with synovium.
Cells that form the synovial membrane, remove debris, and secrete hyaluronic acid
A condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial lining
A complex, highly permeable, and vascular tissue that lines the inner surface of joint capsules, bursae, tendons, and ligaments; the thin membrane that lines a joint capsule. There are two types of synovial cells. Type A act as macrophages and type B produce synovial fluid for joint lubrication. Marked hypertrophy of the synovium occurs with an inflammatory arthritis.
A tough, rope-like cord of fibrous tissue at both the origin and insertion of muscle; a specialized type of collagenous tissue that attaches muscle to bone. Tendons transmit forces of muscular contraction to cause motion across a joint.
Total Hip Arthroplasty
Total Hip Replacement
Total Knee Replacement
Action of drawing or pullng on an object
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS)
A therapeutic modality that uses electrical stimulation to modulate pain, strengthen muscles, and enhance soft-tissue healing.
An imaging modality in which images are created from high-frequency sound waves (7.5 to 10 MHz [1 MHz = one million cycles per second]) that reflect off of different tissues. The reflected sound waves are recorded and processed by a computer and then converted into an image. Ultrasound is used to evaluate infant hip disorders and tears of the rotator cuff.
Angulation of a distal bone away from the midline in relation to its proximal partner. Genu valgum is a knock-knee deformity, with abduction of the tibia in relation to the femur. Can also be used to describe angulation of fractures or bony deformities.
Angulation of a distal bone toward the midline in relation to its proximal partner. Genu varum is a bowleg deformity, with adduction of the tibia in relation to the femur. Can also be used to describe angulation of fractures or bony deformities.
“Bone formation occurs where there is stress applied, and resorption where it is lacking